Table of Contents
Complete vs. Incomplete
Perfect vs. Imperfect
Monoecious vs. Dioecious
The Four Key Components of a Flower
Stamens(Video) Plant Parts and Functions for Kids
Other Parts of a Flower
Style(Video) Parts of Plants for Kids | Learn all about plant parts and their functions
The sole purpose of flowers is sexual reproduction, therefore ensuring the survival of the species. Many flowers that rely on pollinators, such as birds and butterflies, have evolved to have brightly colored petals and appealing scents as a way to attract the attention of the pollinators. Flowers that are pollinated by the wind do not need to be as showy in order to survive and, therefore, wind-pollinated flowers are typically duller in both aesthetics and scent.
Here we’ll learn about every part of a flower, and understand in details why flowers are different from one another.
Complete vs. Incomplete
Although all flowers are different, they have several things in common that make up their basic anatomy. The four main parts of a flower are the petals, sepals, stamen, and carpel (sometimes known as a pistil). If a flower has all four of these key parts, it is considered to be a complete flower. If any one of these elements is missing, it is an incomplete flower.
Perfect vs. Imperfect
The reproductive parts of the flower that are necessary for seed production are the stamen (the male organ) and carpel (the female organ). If a flower has both of these parts, it is called a perfect flower, even if it lacks some of the other key parts. If a flower has only one of the reproductive parts, either a stamen or carpel, it is considered to be an imperfect flower.
- Cherry blossom
Monoecious vs. Dioecious
Furthermore, plants that have imperfect flowers can be broken up into two categories. These are monoecious and dioecious. Monoecious plants have imperfect flowers, both male and female, on the same plant. This means that some of the flowers on the same plant will only have a functioning stamen but lack carpel, while other flowers on the same plant will have the reverse situation: functioning carpel but not stamen.
These plants make life easier for themselves, and for the gardener, as they are self-pollinating and are therefore able to bear fruit and produce seed on their own. Dioecious plants have imperfect male and female flowers on separate plants, so one plant will have all-female imperfect flowers with carpel and no stamen, while another plant of the same type will have all-male imperfect flowers: functioning stamen but no carpel. For dioecious plants, it’s imperative that they are planted near each other to make pollination more likely.
- Mulberry bush
- Date palm
The Four Key Components of a Flower
Sepals are the exterior parts of a flower that protect the interior flower while it emerges. Sepals are typically green and leaf-like, as they are in fact modified leaves, but it is possible for them to be almost any color depending on the type of plant. The sepal is the first part of the flower to grow, forming at the uppermost end of a stem. The sepal creates a bud around the emerging flower, and its key responsibilities are to protect the flower as it grows and prevent it from drying out. Not all flowers have sepals, and in some cases, the sepals are modified into bracts that surround the flower. They are often brightly colored, and in many cases, the bract draws more attention than the flower itself.
Petals exist to draw pollinators to the flower. It is for this reason that they are often brightly colored, showy, and of interesting patterns and sizes. The petals together form what is known as the corolla of the plant. Petals are probably the part of the flower that has most variation from plant to plant. Not only do they differ in color, size, and shape, but some petals form in several layers to create very full-looking flowers, while others appear to not have separate petals, but instead are one solid petal.
The stamen is the male reproductive organ of a flower. Each stamen contains two main parts. The filament is the long cylindrical tendril part of the stamen, while the anther is a sac that sits at the top of the filament. The function of the filament is simply to hold up the anther, extending it up to an accessible part of the flower for pollinators reach, or for the wind to disperse the pollen.
The anther is where the pollen is produced, and each anther contains many grains of pollen that each have the male reproductive cells present in them. Each flower can have just a few stamens, or hundreds of them. The function of the stamen is to produce pollen and make it available for pollinators to allow reproduction. When a pollinator, such as a bee or a bird, touches the anther the pollen will stick to them, and then get transported to other flowers they visit. This is where the carpel comes in (Oregon State University Extension).
The carpel, which is also sometimes called the pistil, is the female reproductive organ of a flower. Each carpel is usually bowling pin-shaped, and features a sac at its base in the center of a flower, and this sac is the ovary that produces and contains developing seeds, or ovules. Moving upward, the ovary extends to support a style, that is a tube-like structure leading up to the stigma at the very top.
The stigma features a flat surface with a sticky texture, that is ideal for capturing pollen that has been transported to the stigma of the flower by wind or pollinating insects and birds. Upon arriving on the stigma, pollen will germinate to produce a pollen tube down the style. When it reaches the ovary sac, the pollen tube fertilizes the ovules. At this point, pollination is complete.
A fertilized ovary swells to protect the developing seeds and transforms the flower into a fruit. Inside the fruit, a fertilized ovule becomes a seed, from that the plant can be sown and an entirely new plant created (University of Illinois Extension).
Other Parts of a Flower
The corolla presents differently in different types of flowers, but it always makes up the inner perianth that immediately surrounds the reproductive part of the plant. Typically, the corolla is made up of a circle of distinct petals, but it can also be formed from one solid petal in the case of petunia. It may also be lobed or layered in the case of some roses, which can be referred to as double or even triple blooms with many layers of petals.
The corolla attracts pollinators to the plant with its vivid coloring and interesting scents, except for in the case of flowers that are pollinated by the wind. Wind-pollinated flowers have not needed to evolve to attract birds or insects for the survival of the species and, therefore, their corollas are often plain or dull.
The filament is the thin tubular part of the stamen that extends and supports the pollen sac at the top.
The ovary produces and contains unfertilized seeds. It sits centrally inside the flower at the base of the carpel. Once fertilized, it is the ovary that develops into the fruit of the plant.
Ovules are contained within the ovary, and in the event of successful pollination, they will become the seed of the fruit.
The anther sits at the top of the filament of a stamen and produces and contains the pollen.
A bract works similarly to a sepal on plants that do not have sepals. It is a modified leaf that looks more like a petal than a leaf, as it is usually brightly colored and shaped differently to other leaves on the plant.
The style is the elongated part of a carpel that joins the ovary to the stigma. It is the tube through which pollen is delivered to the ovary.
The stigma sits at the top of the carpel, and its job is to capture pollen. It is often sticky in texture or contains tiny hair-like structures to help pollen adhere to its surface.
A receptacle sits at the top of a stalk underneath the main portion of the flower. It is often enlarged to support the weight of the flower, or the fruit when it develops. Its main function is to both connect the stalk to the flower and to support the flower.
A peduncle is the stalk of a flower, or the stem from which a cluster of flowers bloom.
A pedicel is the secondary stalk from which flowers grow off the main stem. Only plants that have inflorescence in the form of clusters or similar will have pedicels.
A perianth is the scientific term for the parts of the flower that surround the reproductive organs. The perianth can be divided into two segments, the inner perianth and the outer perianth. The inner perianth is usually composed of the corolla, which is made up of a series of petals. The outer perianth is the calyx, which is typically made up of sepals. The purpose of the perianth as a whole is to protect the flower as it develops, protect the fully grown reproductive organs, and to lure pollinators to the flowers for the purpose of pollination and reproduction, ensuring the continuation of the species.
The calyx is the technical term for a group of sepals, leaf-like structures that surround and protect the bud as it forms into a flower.
A flower consists of four parts: sepals, petals, stamens, and a pistil.What are the parts of a flower answers? ›
A flower consists of four parts: sepals, petals, stamens, and a pistil.What are the parts of a flower tree? ›
The four main parts of a flower are the petals, sepals, stamen, and carpel (sometimes known as a pistil).What are the functions of a flower answer? ›
Answer : The function of a flower is to carry out sexual reproduction in plants through the formation of male and female gametes. Flowers ensure that the gametes fertilise to form seeds that further help in reproducing plants.What are the 6 important parts of a flowering plant? ›
Plants typically have six basic parts: roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds.What are the 5 parts of a flower? ›
The calyx, corolla, androecium, and gynoecium are four whorls of modified leaves that constitute the flower. The sepals, petals, stamens, and pistils, respectively, constitute one of the flower parts in each of these whorls.What are the four main parts of a flower ____? ›
A typical flower has four main parts—or whorls—known as the calyx, corolla, androecium, and gynoecium (Figure 1).What is the function of stamen? ›
Stamens are the male reproductive organs of flowering plants. They consist of an anther, the site of pollen development, and in most species a stalk-like filament, which transmits water and nutrients to the anther and positions it to aid pollen dispersal.What are the parts of a tree and their functions? ›
- Crown (Canopy) The crown is the branches and leaves of the tree. It has the important job of making food for the tree. ...
- Roots. Roots hold the tree in the ground and absorb water and minerals the tree needs to make food. ...
- Trunk. The trunk and its branches give a tree its shape.
A tree is made up of the crown, heartwood, cambium, xylem, phloem, bark and roots.
Trunk – generally a single “stem,” but can be multiple-stemmed. Main functions are materials transport and support. Bark – main function is to protect the living tissue called cambium from damage. Roots – two main functions: (1) collect nutrients and water and (2) anchor the tree.What is a flower short answer? ›
Flower is the main reproductive part of the plant. It is made up of four whorls and out of them two outer whorls are the calyx and corolla. The inner two whorls are androecium or the male part of the flower and gynoecium or the female part of the flower.What are the 5 functions of stems? ›
(i) It supports branches, leaves, flowers, and fruits. (ii) It transports water and minerals from the roots to the leaves and other parts of plants. (iii) It transports food from leaves to different parts of the plant. (iv) It holds the plant upright.What is the function of petals? ›
The major function of petals is to attract insects for pollination and to protect the reproductive organs, which are at the centre of the flower.What is the function of a leaf? ›
All leaves change sunlight into energy through photosynthesis. The leaves are the primary food-making part of the plant. Leaves absorb carbon dioxide from the air, combine it with water that comes through the roots of the plants to make food (a sugar molecule known as glucose), and release oxygen into the air.What are the 14 parts of a plant? ›
Plant Parts – Root, Stem, Leaf, Transpiration, Respiration in Plants, Flower, Androecium, Gynoecium, Fruit, Transport Of Water And Minerals In Plants.What are the functions of roots? ›
Its primary functions are anchorage of the plant, absorption of water and dissolved minerals and conduction of these to the stem, and storage of reserve foods.What are the 7 part of a plant? ›
The different parts of a plant include roots, stems, leaves, flowers, seeds, and fruits. Roots have the function of absorbing water and minerals from the soil whereas the primary functions of stems are supporting, transporting, storing, and reproducing.What are the functions of the 6 basic plant parts? ›
- leaf. ...
- Roots absorb minerals. ...
- Plants have different parts to them, just like you. ...
- The stem transports water around the plant. ...
- Leaves make food for the plant from carbon dioxide in the air and sunlight.
- Stems help support the plant and keep it upright. ...
- Petals attract insects to the plant.
- Flower Pollination. Flowers are where pollination takes place. ...
- Seed Production. When pollination occurs in a flowering plant, the male pollen enters the female ovary containing female ovules. ...
- Fruit Production. Fruits are seed coverings. ...
- Fruit Function. Fruits protect seeds.
A. Many showy cultivated plants do indeed have four or five petals, said Melanie Sifton, vice president of horticulture at Brooklyn Botanic Garden, but another big plant category, the monocots, often have three petals or multiples of three. Even then, the numbers and arrangements vary widely.Why are the parts of a flower important? ›
Other parts of the flower that are important are the petals and sepals. Petals attract pollinators and are usually the reason why we buy and enjoy flowers. The sepals are the green petal-like parts at the base of the flower. Sepals help protect the developing bud.What are the three functions of each of the four plant parts? ›
The roots absorb water and minerals from the soil and anchor the plant in the ground. The stem supports the plant above ground, and carries the water and minerals to the leaves. The leaves collect energy from the Sun and make food for the plant, using an amazing process called photosynthesis.What is petal in flower? ›
petal, in flowering plants, a sterile floral part that usually functions as a visually conspicuous element of a flower. Petals are modified leaves and are often brightly coloured to attract specific pollinators to the flower.What are plant parts called? ›
The male parts of the flower are called the stamens and are made up of the anther at the top and the stalk or filament that supports the anther. The female elements are collectively called the pistil. The top of the pistil is called the stigma, which is a sticky surface receptive to pollen.What is the function of the ovary of a flower? ›
ovary, in botany, enlarged basal portion of the pistil, the female organ of a flower. The ovary contains ovules, which develop into seeds upon fertilization. The ovary itself will mature into a fruit, either dry or fleshy, enclosing the seeds.Where is the pistil of a flower? ›
The pistil usually is located in the center of the flower and is made up of three parts: the stigma, style, and ovary. The stigma is the sticky knob at the top of the pistil. It is attached to the long, tubelike structure called the style.What are two functions of a tree? ›
Ecological & Environmental Value. Trees contribute to their environment by providing oxygen, improving air quality, climate amelioration, conserving water, preserving soil, and supporting wildlife. During the process of photosynthesis, trees take in carbon dioxide and produce the oxygen we breathe.What are the 5 basic parts of a tree? ›
There are five main parts to a tree – roots, crown, leaves, branches and trunk.
- Roots absorb water and nutrients from the soil.
- They anchor the plant firmly.
- They help in storing food and nutrients.
- Roots transport water and minerals to the plant.
Tree roots anchor the tree in the soil, keeping it straight and stable, and absorb water from the soil. Tree roots also take nutrients and chemicals out of the soil and use them to produce what they need for the tree's growth, development, and repair.What is the basic structure of a tree? ›
As vascular plants, trees are organized into three major organs: the roots, the stems, and the leaves. The leaves are the principal photosynthetic organs of most higher vascular plants.What is the tree structure called? ›
A tree structure consists of nodes connected by edges. One of its significant advantages over other data structures such as arrays, linked lists, stacks and queues is that it is a non-linear data structure that provides easier and quicker access to data.What are the three 3 main parts of the tree? ›
Trees have three main parts - the leaves, the trunk and the roots. The upper part of the tree with the branches is called the crown.What are examples of parts of a tree? ›
A mature tree has three basic parts: 1) roots, 2) crown, and 3) trunk or bole. Although the structure of these parts may vary based on the altitude and geographical position of the tree, each of them performs distinct functions.What are the branches of a tree diagram? ›
A probability tree diagram consists of two parts - nodes and branches. A node is used to represent an event. A branch is used to denote the connection between an event and its outcome. A probability tree diagram can be used to depict conditional probabilities as well as independent events.What is the 20 flowers name? ›
There are over 400,000 flowering plant species across the world, producing a variety of types of flowers in a range of colors and shades and in all different shapes and sizes.How many parts of a flower? ›
There are commonly four distinct whorls of flower parts: (1) an outer calyx consisting of sepals; within it lies (2) the corolla, consisting of petals; (3) the androecium, or group of stamens; and in the centre is (4) the gynoecium, consisting of the pistils.
The stem arranges the branches and leaves in a way that all the leaves get enough sunlight to carry out photosynthesis. It is responsible for carrying minerals, water, and glucose to different parts of the plant. When the stems are green, they may contain chloroplasts and perform photosynthesis.What is the function of the root and stem? ›
The roots of a plant take up water and nutrients from the soil. They also anchor the plant to the ground and keep it steady. The stem carries water and nutrients to different parts of the plant. It also provides support and keeps the plant standing upright.What is the function of a seed? ›
Seeds protect and nourish the embryo or young plant. They usually give a seedling a faster start than a sporeling from a spore, because of the larger food reserves in the seed and the multicellularity of the enclosed embryo.What are the 3 main functions of a leaf? ›
The main functions of leaves are photosynthesis, exchange of gasses and transpiration.What are the 7 parts of a leaf? ›
Apex: tip of the leaf • Margin: edge of the leaf • Veins: carry food/water throughout leaf; act as a structure support • Midrib: thick, large single vein along the midline of the leaf • Base: bottom of the leaf • Petiole: the stalk that joins a leaf to the stem; leafstalk • Stipule: the small, leaf-like appendage to a ...What are the 5 functions of flower? ›
- It increases the beauty of the plant.
- It helps in reproduction in plants.
- It gives nectar to birds or insect.
- It attracts the birds or insects for help in pollination.
The male parts of the flower are called the stamens and are made up of the anther at the top and the stalk or filament that supports the anther. The female elements are collectively called the pistil. The top of the pistil is called the stigma, which is a sticky surface receptive to pollen.What are the functions of petals? ›
The major function of petals is to attract insects for pollination and to protect the reproductive organs, which are at the centre of the flower.What is the structure and function of a flower? ›
Flowers are angiosperms' organs of sexual reproduction; each structure's design serves a specific role toward that end. The pistil (stigma, style, and ovary) produces female gametes within ovules, and the stamen (filament and anther) produces male gametes, or pollen.
The main function of a leaf is to produce food for the plant by photosynthesis. Chlorophyll, the substance that gives plants their characteristic green colour, absorbs light energy. The internal structure of the leaf is protected by the leaf epidermis, which is continuous with the stem epidermis.
The roots absorb water and minerals from the soil and anchor the plant in the ground. The stem supports the plant above ground, and carries the water and minerals to the leaves. The leaves collect energy from the Sun and make food for the plant, using an amazing process called photosynthesis.What is the purpose of the flowers on a tree? ›
Flowers are the reproductive structures that produce new plants. Trees reproduce by producing flowers, by self pollination or cross- pollination, mostly by insects, animals or wind, and develop fruits bearing seeds.What is the function of roots? ›
Its primary functions are anchorage of the plant, absorption of water and dissolved minerals and conduction of these to the stem, and storage of reserve foods.